Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member Tafari
N 47° 48.033 E 013° 02.600
33T E 353482 N 5295986
Quick Description: Salzburg has managed to preserve an extraordinarily rich urban fabric, developed over the period from the Middle Ages to the 19th century when it was a city-state ruled by a prince-archbishop. Its Flamboyant Gothic art attracted many craftsmen and artists before the city became even better known through the work of the Italian architects Vincenzo Scamozzi and Santini Solari, to whom the centre of Salzburg owes much of its Baroque appearance.
Location: Salzburg, Austria
Date Posted: 1/4/2006 11:16:28 AM
Waymark Code: WM5MM
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member Tafari
Views: 225

Long Description:

The City of Salzburg is the capital of the federal state Salzburg in Austria.

The Festung or Hohensalzburg Fortress overlooks the great Cathedral in the middle of the Old City.

History

The first settlements at Salzburg were apparently begun by the Celts. Around 15 BC the separate settlements were merged into one city by the Romans. At this time the city was called Juvavum and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Around this time, first records of Jewish settlers appear.

Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. A Roman Catholic diocese was formed in the town around 700, which later became an archdiocese responsible for Bavaria.

The economic wealth of the town during this time was based on salt-mining. Salz is the German word for salt, making the name literally mean "Salt castle". A variant English form of the name is 'Saltsburg'. The town's river was a main artery for transporting salt mined in nearby mountains.

In 1077 the fortress was constructed under the order of Duke Gebhard.

In the late 15th century the Jews were expelled from the town.

Until 1803, the Archbishop of Salzburg was the ruler of the city and the surrounding territory. Successive archbishop princes moulded the town, with the most influential being Wolf Dietrich who was largely responsible for the shape of the city today. His influence saw the creation of the towering Salzburg cathedral, the Mirabell Garden, and other landmarks. In 1803, Salzburg became politically a part of Austria, and so it remains to this day.

Not all of these Archbishop-Princes left a noble legacy. On October 31, 1731, the 214th Anniversary of Martin Luther's launching the Reformation by nailing his 95 Theses of Contention to the Wittenberg Church door, Roman Catholic Archbishop Count Leopold von Firmian signed his Edict of Expulsion (not to be confused with many similar edicts of expulsion issued against the Jews in various cities in Europe), the Emigrationspatent, declaring that all Protestants recant their non-Catholic beliefs or be banished.

After signing the edict on the 214th Anniversary of Reformation Day, Archbishop von Firmian declared that it was to be read publicly November 11, 1731, the 248th anniversary of Luther's baptism. Believing that his edict would drive away a few hundred troublesome infidels in the hills around the town, Firmian was surprised when 21,475 citizens professed on a public list their Protestant beliefs.

Land owners were given three months to sell their lands and leave. Cattle, sheep, furniture and land all had to be dumped on the market, and the Salzburgers received little money from the well-to-do Catholic allies of Von Firmian. Von Firmian himself confiscated much of their land for his own family, and ordered all Protestant books and Bibles burned. Many children aged 12 and under were seized to be raised as Roman Catholics. Yet those who owned land gained one key advantage: the three month deadline delayed their departure until after the worst of winter.

Non-owner farmers, tradesmen, laborers and miners were given only 8 days to sell what they could and leave. The first refugees marched north through the Alps in desperately cold temperatures and snow storms, seeking shelter in the few cities of Germany controlled by Protestant Princes, while their children walked or rode on wooden wagons loaded with baggage.

As they went, the exiles' savings were quickly drained away as they were set upon by both legal and illegal highwaymen, who seized taxes, tolls and payment for protection by soldiers from robbers.

The story of their plight spread quickly as their columns marched north. Goethe wrote the poem Hermann and Dorothea about the Salzburg exiles' march. Protestants and even some Catholics were horrified at the cruelty of their expulsion in winter, and the courage they had shown by not renouncing their faith. Slowly at first, they came upon towns that welcomed them and offered them aid. But there was no place where such a large number of refugees could settle.

Finally, in 1732 Lutheran King Frederick William I of Prussia accepted 12,000 Salzburger Protestant emigrants, who settled in areas of East Prussia that had been devastated by the plague twenty years before. Their new homelands were located in what today is northeastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast, and Lithuania. Other, smaller groups made their way to the Banat region of modern Romania, to what is now Slovakia, to areas near Berlin and Hannover in Germany, and to the Netherlands.

On March 12, 1734, a small group of about sixty exiles from Salzburg who had traveled to London arrived in the British American colony of Georgia seeking religious freedom. Later in that year they were joined by a second group, and by 1741 a total of approximately 150 of the Salzburg exiles had founded the town of Ebenezer on the Savannah River, about twenty five miles north of the city of Savannah. Other German speaking families – mostly Swiss Germans, Palatines and Swabians – also joined the Salzburgers at Ebenezer. In time, all of these Germanic people became known as "Salzburgers"

During World War II, the city was lucky not to sustain heavy damage from Allied bombing runs. Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedral were demolished, much of its baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, it is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style.

In the city of Salzburg there were several DP Camps following World War II. Among these were Riedenburg, Camp Herzl (Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, New Palestine.

In 1965, the movie The Sound of Music was filmed in Salzburg and the state of Salzburg. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, a Salzburg-based nun who took up with an aristocratic family and fled German occupation. Although the film is relatively unknown to Austrians, the town draws a large percentage of visitors who wish to relive the movie by visiting the filming locations.

In 1996 the City of Salzburg was defined by a World Heritage Site.

Notable citizens

  • The famous composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born and raised in Salzburg. His house of birth and residence are popular tourist attractions. His family is buried in a small church graveyard in the old town, and there are many monuments to "Wolferl" in the city.
  • Christian Doppler, an expert on acoustic theory, was born in Salzburg. He is most renowned for his discovery of the Doppler effect.
  • Josef Mohr was born in Salzburg. Together with Franz Gruber, he composed and wrote the text for Silent Night. As a priest in neighbouring Oberndorf he performed the song for the first time in 1818.
  • Noted writer Stefan Zweig resided in Salzburg for about 15 years until his departure in 1934.
  • Salzburg is also the birthplace of Hans Makart, a 19th century Austrian painter-decorator and national celebrity. Makartplatz (Makart Square) is named in his honour.
  • Writer Thomas Bernhard was raised in Salzburg and spent part of his life there.
  • Herbert von Karajan was a notable musician and conductor. He was born in Salzburg and died in 1989 in neighbouring Anif.

 

Tourist Informations you can get here.

Try to find the Salzburger Dom at N 47°47.879, E 013° 02.761 and take a picture with you and the cathedral for your log. If you like you can also choose another point of interest. You will find enough during your sightseeing tour trough this City.

Happy waymarking

Ras Tafari

Type: Site

Reference number: 784

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