Torre de Belém - European Union Edition - Lisboa, Portugal
Posted by: Groundspeak Regular Member razalas
N 38° 41.528 W 009° 12.934
29S E 481253 N 4282635
Quick Description: The tokens of the European Union Edition are monuments and the Torre de Belém is one of them. The Torre de Belém of Pisa is one of the most recognizable and famous monuments in Portugal.
Location: Lisboa, Portugal
Date Posted: 10/19/2016 9:22:14 AM
Waymark Code: WMT9EJ
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member Outspoken1
Views: 8

Long Description:
[PT]
A Torre de Belém é um dos monumentos mais expressivos da cidade de Lisboa. Localiza-se na margem direita do rio Tejo, onde existiu outrora a praia de Belém. Inicialmente cercada pelas águas em todo o seu perímetro, progressivamente foi envolvida pela praia, até se incorporar hoje à terra firme.
O monumento se destaca pelo nacionalismo implícito, visto que é todo rodeado por decorações do Brasão de armas de Portugal, incluindo inscrições de cruzes da Ordem de Cristo nas janelas de baluarte; tais características remetem principalmente à arquitetura típica de uma época em que o país era uma potência global (a do início da Idade Moderna).
Classificada como Património Mundial pela UNESCO, em 7 de Julho de 2007 foi eleita como uma das Sete maravilhas de Portugal.

História
Originalmente sob a invocação de São Vicente de Saragoça, padroeiro da cidade de Lisboa, designada no século XVI pelo nome de Baluarte de São Vicente a par de Belém e por Baluarte do Restelo, esta fortificação integrava o plano defensivo da barra do rio Tejo projetado à época de João II de Portugal (1481-95), integrado na margem direita do rio pelo Baluarte de Cascais e, na esquerda, pelo Baluarte da Caparica.
A estrutura só viria a ser iniciada em 1514, sob o reinado de Manuel I de Portugal (1495-1521), tendo como arquitecto Francisco de Arruda. Localizava-se sobre um afloramento rochoso nas águas do rio, fronteiro à antiga praia de Belém, e destinava-se a substituir a antiga nau artilhada, ancorada naquele trecho, de onde partiam as frotas para as Índias. As suas obras ficaram a cargo de Diogo Boitaca, que, à época, também dirigia as já adiantadas obras do vizinho Mosteiro dos Jerónimos.
Concluída em 1520, foi seu primeiro alcaide Gaspar de Paiva, nomeado para a função no ano seguinte.
Com a evolução dos meios de ataque e defesa, a estrutura foi, gradualmente, perdendo a sua função defensiva original. Ao longo dos séculos foi utilizada como registro aduaneiro, posto de sinalização telegráfico e farol. Os seus paióis foram utilizados como masmorras para presos políticos durante o reinado de Filipe II de Espanha (1580-1598), e, mais tarde, por João IV de Portugal (1640-1656). O Arcebispo de Braga e Primaz das Espanhas, D. Sebastião de Matos de Noronha (1586-1641), por coligação à Espanha e fazendo frente a D. João IV, foi preso e mandado recluso para a Torre de Belém.
Sofreu várias reformas ao longo dos séculos, principalmente a do século XVIII que privilegiou as ameias, o varandim do baluarte, o nicho da Virgem, voltado para o rio, e o claustrim.
Classificada como Monumento Nacional por Decreto de 10 de Janeiro de 1907, é considerada como Património Mundial pela UNESCO desde 1983. Naquele mesmo ano integrou a XVII Exposição Europeia de Arte Ciência e Cultura.

Características
O monumento reflete influências islâmicas e orientais, que caracterizam o estilo manuelino e marca o fim da tradição medieval das torres de menagem, ensaiando um dos primeiros baluartes para artilharia no país (ver fortalezas).
Parte da sua beleza reside na decoração exterior, adornada com cordas e nós esculpidas em pedra, galerias abertas, torres de vigia no estilo mourisco e ameias em forma de escudos decoradas com esferas armilares, a cruz da Ordem de Cristo e elementos naturalistas, como um rinoceronte, alusivos às navegações. O interior gótico, por baixo do terraço, que serviu como armaria e prisão, é muito austero.
A sua estrutura compõe-se de dois elementos principais: a torre e o baluarte. Nos ângulos do terraço da torre e do baluarte, sobressaem guaritas cilíndricas coroadas por cúpulas de gomos, ricamente decorada em cantaria de pedra.


[ENG]
Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the Belém district of Lisbon, Portugal. It is an UNESCO World Heritage Site (along with the nearby Jerónimos Monastery) because of the significant role it played in the Portuguese maritime discoveries of the era of the Age of Discoveries. The tower was commissioned by King John II to be both part of a defense system at the mouth of the Tagus River and a ceremonial gateway to Lisbon.
The tower was built in the early 16th century and is a prominent example of the Portuguese Manueline style, but it also incorporates hints of other architectural styles. The structure was built from lioz limestone and is composed of a bastion and the 30 meter (100 foot), four story tower. It has incorrectly been stated that the tower was built in the middle of the Tagus and now sits near the shore because the river was redirected after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In fact, the tower was built on a small island in the Tagus River near the Lisbon shore.


History

In the late 15th century, King John II designed a defense system for the mouth of the Tagus River by building the Fortress of Cascais and the Fortress of São Sebastião of Caparica on the south side of the river. These fortresses did not completely cover the mouth of the river and further protection was required. King John II planned the tower to supplement the defense system and King Manuel I finished the construction of the tower after the death of King John II. Before the completion of the tower, the Grand Nau (Great Ship), a heavily armed, 1000 tonne (1100 ton) ship was used to supplement the defense. The construction of the tower completed the defense system and was finished in the last five years of Manuel's reign.
The tower was constructed between 1515 and 1521 by the military architect, Francisco de Arruda. Diogo de Boitaca, the first architect of the nearby Jerónimos Monastery, also participated in decorating the building. The tower was dedicated to the patron saint of Lisbon, St Vincent, and commemorated the expedition of Vasco de Gama.
Various guides claim the tower was built in the middle of the Tagus River and now sits near the shore after the 1755 earthquake redirected the river. But other references, including both the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Institute of Architectural Heritage, state that originally the tower stood on a little island near the bank of the Tagus, opposite Restelo beach. As the shoreline progressively moved southward over the years, the tower is now nearly on the riverbank itself.
The tower was used as a fortress until 1580, when Lisbon was invaded by Spanish troops in the course of a struggle for the Portuguese throne. During subsequent centuries, the tower was mainly used as a political prison. King Miguel I (1828–34) used the damp dungeon to retain his liberal opponents. It has also been used as a custom house for ships entering Lisbon. The tower received military upgrades in 1589 and 1809–14.
In 1845, Queen Maria II restored the Belém Tower at the urging of romantic writer Almeida Garrett and the persuasion of the war minister, the Duke of Tercira. During the renovation, many neo-Manueline decorative elements were added to the building, including the battlements, the rampart walk and the niche of the Virgin. In 1907 it was declared a national monument.
The military quarters on the battlements were removed in 1940 when the Ministry of Finance took control of the tower. At that time an inner cloister was built. In 1983, an artificial lake was built around the tower to permanently surround it with water and an acrylic dome was built over the cloister. In that year it was named, together with the nearby Jerónimos Monastery, an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The two were named a joint UNESCO site because they are both considered masterpieces of the Manueline architectural style that represents the Portugal's era of exploration and its maritime discoveries that were influential to the modern world. The two specific UNESCO criteria these monuments meet are that they first are outstanding examples of an influential culture or civilization (the Portuguese exploratory age and maritime discoveries), and second, they are examples of a type of building or architectural style (Manueline) that illustrates a significant state in human history (the exploratory age).
The tower and bastion received maintenance and restoration from February 1997 to January 1998. These restoration works included reinforcing the structure, treating the mortar joints and structural cleaning. Structural works included the reinforcement of the south balcony supports with stainless steel rods and epoxy resin. The same was also carried out for fixing the statues of Saint Vincent and the Archangel Saint Michael. The tower was given a Europa Nostra award in 1999.
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