Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill - Rome, Italy
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member RakeInTheCache
N 41° 53.550 E 012° 28.929
33T E 291119 N 4640906
Quick Description: The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was the most important temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill.
Location: Lazio, Italy
Date Posted: 10/2/2015 12:26:25 PM
Waymark Code: WMPPKZ
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member fi67
Views: 3

Long Description:
Much of what is known of the first Temple of Jupiter is from later Roman tradition. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus vowed this temple while battling with the Sabines and, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, began the terracing necessary to support the foundations of the temple.

According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy, the foundations and most of the superstructure of the temple were completed by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome.

Traditionally the Temple was dedicated on September 13, the founding year of the Roman Republic, 509 BCE.

The original temple measured almost 60 m × 60 m (200 ft × 200 ft) and was considered the most important religious temple of the whole state of Rome. Each deity of the Triad had a separate cella, with Juno Regina on the left, Minerva on the right, and Jupiter Optimus Maximus in the middle.

The second temple was built to the same plan on the same foundations, but with more expensive materials for the superstructure. Literary sources indicate that the temple was not entirely completed until the late 60s BCE. Brutus and the other assassins locked themselves inside it after murdering Caesar. The new temple of Quintus Lutatius Catulus was renovated and repaired by Augustus.

The second building burnt down during the course of fighting on the hill on December 19, 69 CE, when an army loyal to Vespasian battled to enter the city in the Year of the Four Emperors. Domitian narrowly escaped with his life.

The new emperor, Vespasian, rapidly rebuilt the temple on the same foundations but with a lavish superstructure. The third temple of Jupiter was dedicated in 75CE. The third temple burned during the reign of Titus in the great fire of 80CE.

Domitian immediately began rebuilding the temple, again on the same foundations, but with the most lavish superstructure yet. According to ancient sources, Domitian used at least twelve thousands talents of gold for the gilding of the bronze roof tiles alone.

The temple completed by Domitian is thought to have lasted more or less intact for over three hundred years, until all pagan temples were closed by emperor Theodosius I in 392. During the fifth century the temple was damaged by Stilicho (who according to Zosimus removed the gold that adorned the doors) and Gaiseric (Procopius states that the Vandals plundered the temple during the sack of Rome in 455, stripping away the roof shingles made of gold and bronze). In 571, Narses removed many of the statues and ornaments. The ruins were still well preserved in 1447 when the 15th-century humanist Poggio Bracciolini visited Rome. The remaining ruins were destroyed in the 16th century, when Giovanni Pietro Caffarelli built a palace (Palazzo Caffarelli) on the site reusing material from the temple.

Today, portions of the temple foundations can be seen behind the Palazzo dei Conservatori, in an exhibition area built in the Caffarelli Garden, and within the Musei Capitolini. A part of front corner is also visible in via del Tempio di Giove.
Most Relevant Historical Period: Roman Empire > 27 B.C.

Admission Fee: 15€

Opening days/times:
Open daily, from 9.30 to 19.30 24 and 31 December: 9.30 - 14.00; Last admission 1 hour before closing time.


Web Site: [Web Link]

Condition: Some remaining traces (ruins) or pieces

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