General John T. Reynolds - Gettysburg, PA
Posted by: Groundspeak Regular Member Math Teacher
N 39° 48.460 W 077° 14.110
18S E 308663 N 4408800
Quick Description: This Civil War General statue represents five Pennsylvania Civil War Generals (six total generals) and eight statues overall found in the niches that flank the four archways of the massive, granite Pennsylvania State Memorial.
Location: Pennsylvania, United States
Date Posted: 9/5/2012 6:11:10 PM
Waymark Code: WMF7J1
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member Checkmark
Views: 11

Long Description:

This beautiful, heroic-sized statue is one of 8 statues of historic Civil War figures featured at the Pennsylvania State Memorial. Reynolds stands in an especially designed niche on the rear or northwest facing of the gigantic memorial. (A visitor would face southeast to view this side). Each of the four sides has two statues, on either end flanking the arch. There are two on the front, Lincoln (No. 1) and Curtin (No. 2) and moving to the right or counterclockwise, pass the Hancock (No. 3) and Birney (No. 4) statues, then moving to the back pass the Gregg statue (No. 5) & the Pleasonton statue (No. 6) and now you have arrived on the left side of the monument. The Reynolds statue is in the first position, and left of the arch, (No. 7 by my count). The subject mater, General John Reynolds, was killed on the morning of July 1, 1863, Reynolds was commanding the "left wing" of the Army of the Potomac, with operational control over the I, III, and XI Corps, and Brig. Gen. John Buford's cavalry division.

Major General John F. Reynolds (September 8, 1820-July 1, 1863) was the commander of the Army of the Potomac’s Left Wing. Reynolds was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He is buried in Lancaster. There is also a monument to Reynolds in front of Philadelphia City Hall. Reynolds was featured in a few movies as well. From what I have read, no one can agree on when or where he was killed and by whom he was killed. His death is of great controversy and historical accounts seem to contradict one another.

The Pennsylvania State Memorial and the Reynolds statue are located on Hancock Avenue within a triangular area whose borders consist of Pleasonton Avenue, Humphreys Avenue and Hancock Avenue. The huge Pennsylvania monument faces the southwest. There is a dedicated parking area to the rear of the memorial which can accommodate nine cars. Additionally, parking is available on the side of the Hancock Avenue (one way only) in white painted spaces. There is also a rest station with bathrooms and a broken water fountain to the right of the parking lot (this is a one way road). This nearby comfort station was completed in 1933 as the first Gettysburg Parkitecture structure. Please be mindful of not parking on the grass or anything green, lest ye be ticketed. I visited this specific statue on July 5, 2012 and again on August 13, 2012, both times in the late afternoon using a Canon PowerShot 14.1 Megapixel, SX210 IS digital camera and a General Electric A1050 10MP Digital Camera with 5X Optical Zoom for the photos.

The statue is eight feet high and of bronze. Physically, it is a standing portrait of Reynolds, resting on a foot high, rectangular plinth with his last name deeply incised in capital letters on the front. Birney is dressed in a military jacket draped down to just above the knee, 16 buttons up and down his uniform/jacket, a belt with buckle with what appears to be an eagle upon it. His proper right hand is shoved inside the breast of his jacket while his proper left hand rests in a relaxed position on the hilt of the sword, leaning against his hip (hand and sword) which points downward, coming to a rest on the plinth. His proper left hand is sort of clasped over the hilt while he is in a relaxed pose. The sword leans against his proper left leg. He wears riding boots which rise just above the knee and is then folded a bit, creased in various places. He appears rather awkward and uncomfortable with his proper right leg thrust forward, half of his foot extending beyond the plinth (an interesting effect) and the other foot even with his shoulders. He gazes dead ahead like an ever watching sentinel. He wears a short hat or cap with only a small brim in the front and slightly bent on the right side (your left). He has a grizzly looking face with a beard connected to a relatively trimmed mustache. Overall, the statue is very real with wrinkles in the clothes, detail everywhere and a sense of realism. Reynolds looks older than the forty-two years he was when he died at Gettysburg. In fact, without being too disrespectful, Reynolds looks downright scary like a zombie.

In 1907, $150,000 was appropriated to erect a suitable memorial to honor all Pennsylvanians who participated in the battle at Gettysburg. The design submitted by architect W. Liance Cottrell was selected amongst artists who submitted designs and the Harrison Granite Company was chosen to execute the design. Construction on the memorial began in the summer of 1909. However, at the time of the dedication on Sept. 27, 1910, the eight portrait statues Cottrell envisioned for the niches on either side of each archway were missing due to the lack of funds. In the year following the dedication, an additional $40,000 was appropriated to create the statues, and the Van Amringe Granite Company was given the contract. The statues were cast at the Gorham Manufacturing Company and were installed in April of 1913 and the entire memorial was rededicated July 4, 1913. The total cost for the memorial was $200,000. The artists specifically responsible for the Reynolds statue were sculptor Lee Oskar Lawrie (1877 - 1963); sculptor Otto J. Schweizer (1863-1955), architect W. Liance Cottrell; Harrison Granite Company, fabricator; Gorham Manufacturing Company, founder and Van Amringe Granite Company, fabricator.

The Pennsylvania State Memorial (and Reynolds Statue) is a contributing feature to the Gettysburg National Military Park Historic District which is nationally significant under NR Criteria A, B, C & D. Areas of Significance: Military, Politics/Government, Landscape Architecture, Conservation, Archeology-Historic. Period of Significance: 1863-1938. The original National Register Nomination was approved by the Keeper March 19, 1975. An update to this nomination was approved by the Keeper on January 23, 2004. The monument and statues are identified as structure number MN260.

From the Nomination Form:
1 of 19 Civil War State & National Memorial Monuments of the GBMA Era (1863-1895). Built to commerate Pennsylvania officers & soldiers serving at Gettysburg campaign. Designed by 6 sculptors: Samuel A. Murray, J. Otto Schweizer, W. Clark Noble, Lee O. Lawrie, Cyrus E. Dallin, J. Massey Rhind.

Short Physical Description:
Mn is a 4 sided raised pedestal w/bronze tablets (34"x72") listing PA soldiers. Set on 100' sq. base. Arched passages lead to domed interior. Dome is topped w/bronze winged victory. Double bronze statues located in niches on all 4 sides. 4 oversized reliefs adorn the upper observation deck walls.

Long Physical Description:
Monument is a four-sided raised granite pedestal with bronze tablets listing Pennsylvania soldiers and set on a 100 foot square base. It has arched central passages to the domed interior. The dome is topped with a bronze winged victory. Double bronze statues are located in niches on all four sides. Four oversized granite reliefs adorn the upper observation deck parapet walls. A concrete pathway leads from Hancock Avenue to the monument in a Y shape. Designed by W. Liance Cottrell and sculptured by various American artists, including Samuel Murray, J. Massey Rhind, and J. Otto Schweizer. Located on the east side of Hancock Avenue.

Concrete pathway leads from Hancock Ave. to mn in a Y shape.

My Sources
1. NRHP Narrative
3. Stone Sentinels
4. Virtual Gettysburg
5. Draw the Sword
6. Wikipedia
7. Wikipedia
8. Dcmemorials

Union or Confederacy: Union - North

General's Name: John F. Reynolds

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