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The Pennsylvania State Memorial - Gettysburg National Military Park Historic District - Gettysburg, PA
Posted by: Groundspeak Regular Member Math Teacher
N 39° 48.453 W 077° 14.120
18S E 308649 N 4408787
Quick Description: The single largest specific veterans memorial can be found on Hancock Avenue. The memorial lists every Pennsylvania veteran who fought in the Gettysburg campaign. This structure is so large, it has 9 individual SIRIS listings!
Location: Pennsylvania, United States
Date Posted: 7/26/2011 7:50:04 AM
Waymark Code: WMC50Y
Published By: Groundspeak Charter Member BruceS
Views: 14

Long Description:

The Pennsylvania Memorial, in the center of a triangular lawn at Pleasonton and Hancock Aves., is the largest monument on the battlefield. A four-arched, granite structure, it was erected in 1910 to honor the 34,530 Pennsylvanians who participated in the battle. Bronze statues of Lincoln, Curtin, and Pennsylvania generals adorn the sides of the monument; bronze plates bearing names of all the officers and enlisted men encircle the base. --- Pennsylvania: A Guide to the Keystone State, 1940; page 232,234

A staircase takes visitors to the roof of the monument, which enjoys a panoramic view of the battlefield. At 110 feet high, I was able to spot this monument from various parts of the battlefield, especially from the several look-put towers around the park. There is a nice observation deck near the top which afforded nice views of nearby Cemetery Ridge, named knolls, Round Top and other battlefield sites. I particularly liked the eight statues found here. Bronze statues of Pennsylvania generals George Meade, John Reynolds, Winfield Scott Hancock, David Birney, Alfred Pleasonton and David Gregg, Governor Andrew Curtin, and President Lincoln flank each of the arches.

The The Pennsylvania State Memorial is located south Hancock Avenue Avenue. The Draw the Sword site helped out by the NPS narrative and the SIRIS site offers the following description: The memorial is topped by a dome adorned with a bronze female figure representing the Goddess of Victory and Peace. Above each archway are granite monoliths containing battle scenes honoring the four branches of the service. And in the spandrels flanking each archway are classical maidens, each holding either a trumpet or a wreath of victory. In 1907, $150,000 was appropriated to erect a suitable memorial to honor all Pennsylvanians who participated in the battle at Gettysburg. The design submitted by architect W. Liance Cottrell was selected and the Harrison Granite Company was chosen to execute the design. Construction on the memorial began in the summer of 1909. However, at the time of the dedication on Sept. 27, 1910, the eight portrait statues Cottrell envisioned for the niches on either side of each archway were missing due to the lack of funds. In the year following the dedication, an additional $40,000 as appropriated to create the statues, and the Van Amringe Granite Company as given the contract. The statues were cast at the Gorham Manufacturing Company and were installed in April of 1913. The total cost for the memorial was $200,000. There is also a monument to the Goddess of Victory placed at the top of the monument. Murray, Samuel, 1870-1941, sculptor. The figure representing the Goddess of Victory and Peace weighs 7,500 lbs. and was cast with bronze melted down from cannons used in the war. Samuel Murray created not only the Goddess of Victory and Peace, but also the monolith and spandrel reliefs. The monument sits on top of the dome of the Memorial.

The monument began to be constructed in the summer of 1909 and was dedicated Sept. 27, 1910. The military statues were installed in April 1913. The memorial was rededicated on July 4, 1913 by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The several artists employed in this undertaking were: Cottrell, W. Liance, architect. Harrison Granite Company, fabricator. Gorham Manufacturing Company, founder. Van Amringe Granite Company, fabricator. The monument is composed of North Carolina granite set over an iron and concrete frame. Its base is lined with bronze tablets listing the Pennsylvania regiments and batteries and the names of over 34,000 Pennsylvanians who participated in the battle, 90 bronze tablets in all. There are other inscribed plaques that are not simply names. They read:


(Left Front Entrance):
The
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
In honor of her sons who
on this field fought for the
Preservation of the Union
July 1.2. & 3. 1863

(Right Front Entrance):
Pennsylvania at Gettysburg
69 Regiments Infantry
9 Regiments Cavalry
7 Batteries Artillery
Total Present 34530
Killed and mortally wounded 1182
Wounded 3177 Missing 860

(Left Inside Plaque):
Memorial to the soldiers of Pennsylvania who fought
at Gettysburg July, 1863, erected under authority
of acts of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania
approved June 13, 1907, and February 11, 1909, by
Edwin S. Stuart
Governor of the Commonwealth

The commissioners charged with the selection of the design for the memorial and the construction of it, and who undertook the collection of the names and figures and other data theron, which, necessarily, are approximate, were
St. Clair A. Mulholland - Henry S. Huidekoper - John P. Taylor
Charles F. McKenna - Edward L. Whittelsey
George P. Morgan - Charles E. Quail - Edward A. Irvin
Henry H. Cumings - Jacob C. Stineman

(Right Inside Plaque):
To the Loyal Women
who through four years of war, endured
suffering and bereavement.
This tablet is dedicated
in grateful recognition of their patriotism
by the men of Pennsylvania
who served in the Army and Navy of the United
States during the War of the Rebellion.

(Right Inside Inscription):
Pennsylvania Soldiers of the Army of the Potomac
who participated in the Battle of Gettysburg
2133 Officers of whom 73 were killed or mortally wounded
32,144 enlisted men of whom 1139 wre killed or mortally wounded
Total engaged or on duty 34,247 - total killed or mortally wounded 1212

There were required in the construction of the Pennsylvania Memorial:
1252 tons of cut granite
740 tons of sand
366 tons of cement
1240 tons of broken stone
50 tons of steel
22 tons of bronze
Total 3840 tons

(Stairwell Plaque):
Memorial erected in 1910
Dedicated September 27 1910
W. Liance Cotrell Architect
Samuel A. Murray Sculptor
Harrison Granite Co. Contractors

The The Pennsylvania State Memorial is a contributing feature to the Gettysburg National Military Park Historic District which is nationally significant under NR Criteria A, B, C & D. Areas of Significance: Military, Politics/Government, Landscape Architecture, Conservation, Archeology-Historic. Period of Significance: 1863-1938. The original National Register Nomination was approved by the Keeper March 19, 1975. An update to this nomination was approved by the Keeper on January 23, 2004. The monument is identified as structure number MN260.

From the Nomination Form:
1 of 19 Civil War State & National Memorial Monuments of the GBMA Era (1863-1895). Built to commerate Pennsylvania officers & soldiers serving at Gettysburg campaign. Designed by 6 sculptors: Samuel A. Murray, J. Otto Schweizer, W. Clark Noble, Lee O. Lawrie, Cyrus E. Dallin, J. Massey Rhind.

Short Physical Description:
Mn is a 4 sided raised pedestal w/bronze tablets (34"x72") listing PA soldiers. Set on 100' sq. base. Arched passages lead to domed interior. Dome is topped w/bronze winged victory. Double bronze statues located in niches on all 4 sides. 4 oversized reliefs adorn the upper observation deck walls.

Long Physical Description:
Monument is a four-sided raised granite pedestal with bronze tablets listing Pennsylvania soldiers and set on a 100 foot square base. It has arched central passages to the domed interior. The dome is topped with a bronze winged victory. Double bronze statues are located in niches on all four sides. Four oversized granite reliefs adorn the upper observation deck parapet walls. A concrete pathway leads from Hancock Avenue to the monument in a Y shape. Designed by W. Liance Cottrell and sculptured by various American artists, including Samuel Murray, J. Massey Rhind, and J. Otto Schweizer. Located on the east side of Hancock Avenue.

Concrete pathway leads from Hancock Ave. to mn in a Y shape.


My Sources
1. Draw the Sword
2. SIRIS
3. Virtual Gettysburg
4. Historical Marker Database
5. Stone Sentinels
6. NRHP Narrative

Name of Historic District (as listed on the NRHP): Gettysburg National Military Park Historic District

Link to nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com page with the Historic District: [Web Link]

NRHP Historic District Waymark (Optional): [Web Link]

Address:
Gettysburg National Military Park South Hancock Avenue Gettysburg, PA 17325


How did you determine the building to be a contributing structure?: Narrative found on the internet (Link provided below)

Optional link to narrative or database: [Web Link]

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