Charles Darwin - Asteroid 1991 Darwin And Craters Darwin - Liverpool, UK
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member dtrebilc
N 53° 22.869 W 002° 56.122
30U E 504299 N 5914674
Quick Description: Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Location: North West England, United Kingdom
Date Posted: 5/6/2019 9:15:08 AM
Waymark Code: WM10GV8
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member saopaulo1
Views: 1

Long Description:
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations, and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.

Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.

Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms (1881), he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.

Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and he was honoured by burial in Westminster Abbey.

Since 2008, a statue of Charles Darwin occupies the place of honour at London's Natural History Museum

Darwin’s Extraterrestrial Connections

Asteroid 1991 Darwin
1991 Darwin, provisional designation 1967 JL, is a stony Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 5 kilometers in diameter.

It was discovered on 6 May 1967, by Argentine astronomers Carlos Cesco and Arnold Klemola at the El Leoncito's Yale–Columbia Southern Station of the Félix Aguilar Observatory in Argentina. It was named for both George and Charles Darwin.

Darwin is a member of the Flora family, one of the largest groups of stony asteroids in the main-belt. It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 1.8–2.7 AU once every 3 years and 4 months (1,232 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.21 and an inclination of 6° with respect to the ecliptic.

It was first observed as 1954 UG at Goethe Link Observatory in 1954, extending the body's observation arc by 13 years prior to its official discovery observation at El Lenoncito

Darwin has been characterized as a common stony S-type asteroid based on its classification to the Flora family.

Rotation period
In September 1991, a rotational lightcurve of Darwin was obtained from photometric observations by Polish astronomer Wieslaw Wisniewski. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 4.7 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.08 magnitude (U=2).

Diameter and albedo
According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Darwin measures between 4.989 and 6.32 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.16 and 0.28.

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts Pravec's revised WISE data, that is, an albedo of 0.2541 and a diameter of 5.02 kilometers with an absolute magnitude of 13.6.

Naming
This minor planet was named in memory of English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882), the first to establish the theory of biological evolution. While on research in Argentina, he crossed the Andes relatively near to the Leoncito Astronomical Complex where the minor planet was discovered.

The asteroid also honours George Darwin (1845–1912), his second son who was a noted astronomer for his pioneering application of detailed dynamical analyses to problems of cosmogony and geology. The Darwins are also honoured by the lunar and Martian craters Darwin. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 1 April 1980 (M.P.C. 5282). link

Lunar Crater Darwin
Darwin is a lunar impact crater of the type categorised as a walled plain. It lies in the southeastern part of the Moon, and is sufficiently close to the limb to appear significantly foreshortened when viewed from the Earth. Attached to its southern rim is Lamarck. To the northeast is the dark-floored crater Crüger. link

Martian Crater Darwin
Darwin is an impact crater on Mars, located at 57°S 19°E to the southeast of Argyre Planitia in Noachis Terra. It is approximately 176 km in diameter. The crater's name was formally approved by the IAU in 1973.

To the northeast of Darwin are the craters Green and Roddenberry. To the northwest is the larger crater Galle, and to the southwest is the crater Maraldi. link

The statue of Charles Darwin
This statue is one of eight standing at each corner of the octagonal Palm House Building in Sefton Park.

"Sefton Park in Liverpool is arguably the best known and most loved by locals. Classified as a Grade One listed park by English Heritage, the magnificent 200-acre Park looks like a natural landscape rather than a man-made park. In spring the sight of millions of golden daffodils around the lake draws residents from across the city and carpets of bluebells give an impression of rural permanence.

The park features many distinctive curved paths and driveways and beech and other indigenous British trees abound. Amongst the park's many features are a boating lake, replica statues of Eros and Peter Pan and a café. The park is also home to the famous Palm House, a fabulous glass-panelled building that has been restored to its former glory." link

The Palm House is a Historic England Grade II* Listed Building.
GV II* Palm House, built in 1896, designed by Mackenzie and Moncur. It is octagonal in plan. It has an iron frame on a granite base, with totally glazed openings. It appears as a sequence of three domical roofs, one above the other, including a clerestorey and lantern with a ball finial. The side elevations are of six bays with three round-arched lights and colonnettes to each bay, and ornamental cresting above. There are entrances to the north, south-east and west with barrel-vaulted porches that are enclosed at the sides and have ornamental gates, some with animals or birds. There are statues at each angle by Léon-Joseph Chavalliaud of famous gardeners, explorers and scientists. Flanking the north entrance are A le Notre and J Parkinson; to the east are Mercator and Captain Cook; to the south are Darwin and Linnaeus; and to the west are Henry the Navigator and Columbus." link

The stone statue shows an old Charles Darwin with a long beard and dressed in historical clothing including a large cape. He is holding a staff in his right hand and a specimen in his left.

There is an inscription on the plinth.
CHARLES DARWIN

Born at Shrewsbury 1809, buried in Westminster Abbey 1882
Naturae minister et interpres
Website of the Extraterrestrial Location: [Web Link]

Website of location on Earth: [Web Link]

Celestial Body: Other

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