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King Richard II - National Portrait Gallery, London, UK
Posted by: Groundspeak Premium Member Master Mariner
N 51° 30.566 W 000° 07.656
30U E 699321 N 5710390
Quick Description: This electrotype cast of King Richard II is located at the National Portrait Gallery (NPG) in London. The NPG is open seven days a week and is free to enter (June 2017) but some exhibitions may incur a charge.
Location: London, United Kingdom
Date Posted: 6/19/2017 3:40:14 AM
Waymark Code: WMW00N
Published By: Groundspeak Premium Member lumbricus
Views: 0

Long Description:

The electrotype sculpture of King Richard II is created from his effigy in Westminster Abbey. The sculpture shows his torso and head with his arms concealed. It stands about 790mm (31 inches) tall and was created in 1873 from the original dated c1395-97.

It is one of a series of electrotype reproductions of tomb effigies made for the National Portrait Gallery by Elkington & Co in the 1870s. An electrotype sculpture of this type is made by electro-deposition of copper onto a mould or cast of an object. The electrotype could then be patinated like bronze.

The BBC website has an article about King Richard II that tells us:

Richard was Plantagenet king of England from 1377 to 1399 and was usurped by Henry IV.

Richard was born on 6 January 1367 in Bordeaux, the son of Edward, the Black Prince and grandson of Edward III. Richard's father died in 1376 and his grandfather the following year, making Richard king at the age of 10. The country was ruled largely by his uncle, John of Gaunt. The first crisis of Richard's reign was the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. The young king bravely rode out to meet the rebels, who were led by Wat Tyler. Tyler was killed and the revolt crushed.

As Richard began to take control of government himself, he built a group of unpopular favourites. His request for money to fight in France prompted parliament to demand the dismissal of these favourites. Richard's refusal provoked parliament into impeaching his chancellor, the Earl of Suffolk, and creating a commission to oversee the king's activities. When Richard declared these measures treasonable, parliament and his opponents retaliated in 1388 by outlawing his closest friends, some of whom were executed. Richard appeared defeated and submitted to the demands of the five 'Lords Appellant'.

For eight years Richard worked in apparent harmony with Gaunt and the Lords Appellant. Yet he was waiting for revenge. He gradually formed a second, stronger royalist party. In 1397, he arrested and tried three of the appellants. Arundel was convicted of treason and executed, Warwick was banished and Gloucester imprisoned and murdered. Richard was granted revenues for life and the powers of parliament were delegated to a committee.

In September 1398, a quarrel between two former appellants, Gaunt's son Henry Bolingbroke and Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, gave the king another opportunity for revenge and he banished them both. When Gaunt died in February 1399, Richard confiscated the vast Lancastrian estates, which would have passed to Bolingbroke. In May, Richard left to campaign in Ireland.

Bolingbroke invaded England and rallied both noble and popular support. Returning to England in August, Richard surrendered without a fight. In September, he abdicated and Bolingbroke ascended the throne as Henry IV. In October, Richard was imprisoned in Pontefract Castle, where he died four months later.

Monarch Ranking: King / Queen

Proper Title and Name of Monarch: King Richard II

Country or Empire of Influence: England

Website for additonal information: [Web Link]

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