This is a Land Survey Mark of the House of Braganza that marked the boundaries of the lands of the house of bragança is from the XVII century.House of Braganza
"The House of Braganza, is an important noble house of Portuguese origin, a branch of the House of Aviz. The House evolved from being powerful dukes of Portuguese nobility, to ruling as the monarchs of Portugal and the Algarves, from 1640 to 1910, and as monarchs of Brazil, from 1815 to 1889.
The House of Braganza was founded in 1442, when Afonso, 8th Count of Barcelos, illegitimate son of King John I of Portugal, was made Duke of Braganza, as Duke Afonso I of Braganza. These feudal dukes quickly amassed a fortune in properties and titles and, by the time of Fernando II of Braganza, the House was the wealthiest and most powerful in all of Portugal. This importance created many opportunities, as well as caused many problems, for the house, which varied depending on the House's standings with the Portuguese royal house at the time.
The House of Braganza became the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, was acclaimed King by the Portuguese nobility and subsequently waged the Portuguese Restoration War. The House of Braganza was only recognized as the legitimate ruling house of Portugal by the Portuguese House of Habsburg during the reign of King Afonso VI. The Braganzas were deposed from the Portuguese throne, in 1910, when the Portuguese Republic was proclaimed.
The House of Braganza became the reigning house of Brazil, first, when the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves was created in 1815. The United Kingdom lasted until 1825, when the Brazilian Empire became independent from Portugal. The new Brazilian nation was lead by Prince Pedro of Braganza, heir to the Portuguese throne, who ruled as Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, as well as King Pedro IV of Portugal. Until 1835, the Portuguese Braganzas were still in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne. The House was deposed from the Brazilian throne, in 1889, when Brazil was proclaimed a republic.
In 1834, with the end of the Liberal Wars, won by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil and Queen Maria II of Portugal against King Miguel I of Portugal, the House of Braganza was split into three branches. The first branch was the Legitimist House of Braganza, headed by Queen Maria II of Portugal, daughter of King Pedro IV, and her descendants, who ruled the Kingdom of Portugal. The second branch was the Brazilian House of Braganza, headed by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, and his descendants, who ruled the Brazilian Empire. The third branch was the Miguelist House of Braganza, headed by King Miguel I of Portugal, and his descendants, who claimed the Portuguese throne after King Manuel II's death, in 1932.
In 1835, Queen Maria II of Portugal married Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, later King Fernando II of Portugal. Despite the tradition of following the custom of patrilineal descent of royal houses, common throughout Europe, the children of the marriage between Queen Maria II and King Fernando II were members of the House of Braganza and ruled Portugal as Brigantine monarchs, not as Saxe-Coburg-Gotha monarchs. Some foreign genealogists have classified the descendants of Queen Maria II and Fernando II into a separate house, usually named the House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha however, the Portuguese constitution of 1838 clearly states that "the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II"
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