Lake Ontario - at Whitby Ontario, Canada
Posted by: Skyecat
N 43° 51.037 W 078° 55.635
17T E 666598 N 4857369
Quick Description: Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes, and the most eastern in the Great Lakes Chain that serves to outlet the five lakes and numerous rivers, into the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River.
Location: Ontario, Canada
Date Posted: 2/27/2012 4:37:45 PM
Waymark Code: WMDVQD
Lake Ontario is bounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, where the lake gets its name, and New York state in the USA. The lake is the smallest of the great lakes, with a surface area of 7,340 sq miles, however in volume it exceeds Lake Erie. It is the 14th largest lake in the world with a shoreline of 712 miles or 1,146 km including all islands within the lake.
Lake Ontario was carved from Silurian age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. Currently Lake Ontario receives the bulk of its water from the Niagara River, which drains Lake Erie. There are numerous smaller rivers and streams on both sides of the Lake that empty into the Lake as well. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Don River; Humber River; Trent River; the Cataraqui River; the Genesee River; the Oswego River; the Black River; and the Salmon River.
Because Lake Ontario is deep and its winter climate is moderated by incursions of warm air from the southwest, its open waters rarely freeze in winter. From November to May the main body is well mixed at uniform temperature. From June through October the lake is stratified, with a warm upper layer 10-20 m thick and a cool lower layer. Temperatures at depths below 100 m are almost always less than 5°C. The average residence time of water in Lake Ontario is 8-10 years, compared with 3 years for Lake Erie and more than 100 years for Lake Superior.
Nearly all of Lake Ontario's islands are located on the eastern and north-eastern shores, between the Prince Edward County headland and the lake's outlet at Kingston. The Toronto Islands on the north-western shore are the remnants of a sand spit formed by coastal erosion, whereas the mostly larger eastern islands are underlain by the basement rock found throughout the region. The Thousand Islands, mostly found in the St. Lawrence River, have several large members near the Lake Ontario side of the outlet. Wolfe Island, located near Kingston at the St. Lawrence outlet, is the largest island in the basin. It is accessible by ferry from both Canada and the U.S.
Nearly one-quarter of the present population of Canada lives in southern Ontario near the lake. The "Golden Horseshoe," which encompasses the western end of the lake and includes the major cities of St Catharines, Hamilton and Toronto, is the industrial heartland of the country. Rochester, New York is the largest American city on the south shore of Lake Ontario. Smaller urban centres on the lake include Oswego, NY and Kingston ON, at the eastern end of the lake, and small port towns including Belleville, Cobourg, Oshawa and Whitby.
Lake Ontario is a vital for commercial shipping travelling to the destinations on Lake Erie, Lake Superior and Lake Michigan.
Lake Type: Glacial lake
Coordinates location: Whitby Rotary Sunrise Lake Park,
Max. Length: 193 statute miles
Max. Width: 53 statute miles
Max. Depth: 802 ft; or 244 m
Surface area: 7,340 sq miles
Parking / trail head: N 43° 51.131 W 078° 55.667
Website: [Web Link]
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