Sataniv Gates - Sataniv, Ukraine
Posted by: UKRDOUG
N 49° 15.077 E 026° 14.813
35U E 445192 N 5455662
Quick Description: In the middle of the 16th century the influential Polish Sieniawski family that was based in Berezhany purchased the town of Sataniv and built this gate.
Date Posted: 2/2/2012 9:52:04 AM
Waymark Code: WMDMVF
In the middle of the 16th century the influential Polish Sieniawski family that was based in Berezhany purchased the town of Sataniv. They fortified the town as their first defense against the constant Tatar raids. They rebuilt the castle and surrounded the town with a wall with a magnificent gate of which only one tower still stands today. This proved to be unfortunate for the citizens of Sataniv who became victims of several Tatar raids.
A memorial tablet written in Latin text was placed on the gate entrance in 1722 which reads: “Adam Mykola of Hraniv which belonged to the family of Sieniawski…for the purpose of security has restored this stronghold in Christ’s year of 1722 with the intention of defending the motherland with walls as it did repeatedly with breasts…”
The town of Sataniv is first mentioned in 1404, but the settlement probably had a much earlier beginning. It is unlikely that a Slavic settlement would have chosen such a name since it means “Town of Satan” in their language. The settlement must have existed prior to the Slavic migration into the region. The most likely theory is that the Roman Emperor Trajan made it that far after defeating the Dacians in 106 A.D. Legend has his general Tonilius asking the Emperor if the army should move deeper into unknown lands or was this far enough. Emperor Trajan responded “Sat an non” (this is far enough) which gave this Roman settlement its name.
The castle of Sataniv also must have existed before the first mention of the town in the early 15th Century. The Romans would have built some form of defense to protect their northernmost settlement. A four-tiered stone tower that still stands today includes loopholes for shooting arrows, which dates the fortress to at least the early 14th Century. The castle is first mentioned in 1431 when the Odrowaz family who improved the stronghold to stand against Tatar raids purchased it.
During the Sieniawski period of the town, one of the sons of Sataniv rose to infamy. Severyn Nalyvaiko was born in Sataniv and the ruling Polish magnate killed his father when he was a little boy. He fled with his mother to Ostroh where his brother was studying in seminary. He joined the registered Cossacks serving in the Lithuanian army and fought against the rebellious Zaporozhian Cossacks. But he never forgot about the murder of his father and he eventually formed his own band of Cossacks to fight against the Polish Kingdom for his own principality in the region of his birth.
He made a bold attack against the Lutsk Fortress, the capital of the Volhynian Principality, and slaughtered all the Polish nobility living within its walls. From there he moved into what is now Belarus and captured Mogilev. He then offered peace to Polish King Sigismund Vasa III under the conditions that they cede the lands of Podilya to him. Sigismund refused and eventually captured Nalyvaiko taking him back to Warsaw where he was publicly quartered (cut in four pieces to be displayed around the kingdom).
The 17th Century proved to be the harshest for the town of Sataniv. In 1617 the Tatars sacked the town. The following year Sataniv was granted the Magdeburg Law giving it semi-autonomy to rebuild. The Tatars sacked the town again in 1651. Two years later the Zaporozhian Cossacks surrounded the town. The citizens were tired of fighting and opened the gates to them. The Cossacks spared the town and waged war against the castle. Eventually the Cossacks stormed the fortress slaughtering all the defenders. Later the Polish army retook Sataniv and punished the citizens by killing every tenth male. The Turkish army came in 1672 and conquered the region until the Polish-Turkish War ended in 1699 and the region was returned to Poland. With calm restored, Russian Czar Peter the Great came for a visit to the Sieniawski family in 1711.
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